Gone are the days of clunky prosthetics constructed from basic materials like wood and metal. Yet, this was the norm several hundred years ago. Individuals strapped bulky devices onto their limbs, but they served little to no function. The material often prevented adequate mobility, ultimately rendering them useless. Fortunately, modern prosthetics allow not just for functionality but comfortability.
Advancements in technology ensure that newer prosthetic are lighter and more responsive thereby allowing the performance of basic tasks such as gripping, walking, and eating. Unlike the ancient counterparts, modern-day prosthetics are made of advanced plastic and carbon fibers. Thus, they appear realistic in nature with life-like details like freckles and fingerprints.
The brain communicates with muscles via electrical signals. The brain sends these signals down the spinal cord through peripheral nerves to the muscles. Neural prosthetics depend on this brain activity to control the prosthetic. Electrodes placed on residual limbs transmit electrical signals from muscles to the brain permitting motion of the prosthetics. Brain Computer Interface permits this phenomenon. Mathematical algorithms decode brain cell activity thus ensuring that the prosthetics performs the appropriate movements.
In accordance to the statements of personal injury lawyers at Mazin & Associates, PC, those suffering from certain disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, spinal injuries or loss of limbs often live drastically altered lives with some depending on the support of other individual’s for everyday tasks. Neural prosthesis relies on the ability for the brain to continue operating and translating external stimuli into actions despite debilitating illnesses or accidents. These prosthetics, then, offer autonomy for those who otherwise would not have it. The future of prosthetic research involves the introduction of sensory feedback between the prosthetic device and brain thereby restoring sensation and enabling the individual to feel the artificial limb.
In 2005, the estimated new cases of spinal cord injuries (SCI) in the U.S. was 11,000. Records from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center show, however, that, in 2015, the number went up to 12,500 new cases and still climbed to 17,000 in 2016. There are about 282,000 children and adults already suffering from spinal cord injury and, every year, more continue to be added to their number.
2016 record show that about 80% of new SCI cases involved males, while the average age at injury is 42 years (in the 1970s, the spinal cord injury average age was 29). Major causes of new SCI cases, on the other hand, included vehicle crashes (this has been the leading cause of the injury since 2010), falls, acts of violence (mainly gunshot wounds), sports/recreation activities, and medical/surgical error.
The spinal cord, which forms the central nervous system with the brain, is a bundle of nerve tissues and support cells; it is also one of the human body’s most delicate and sensitive parts. While the brain acts as the body’s command center, the spinal cord serves as the pathway for all messages from the brain to the different parts of the body and vice versa.
A spinal cord injury can damage the ligaments or spinal column disks, the vertebrae (which is a series of small bones that form the backbone), or the spinal cord itself. A spinal cord injury may be traumatic or non-traumatic. Traumatic SCI usually results from a sudden and forceful blow to the spine that fractures, crushes, dislocates, or compresses one or more areas of the vertebrae; it could also be due to a knife or gunshot would that pierces and cuts the spinal cord. Non-traumatic spinal cord injury, though, is usually due to disk degeneration of the spine, cancer, arthritis, infections, inflammation, or loss of blood supply to the cord (age is a major factor to developing non-traumatic SCI. This is because risk to the causes of NTSCI increases with age).
An injury to the spinal cord can be devastating as this can result to either partial or total paralysis, depending on how severe the damage is and the area/s affected by the injury. Partial paralysis, referred to as Paraplegia, is loss of control and function on one side of the body. There is a possibility that a partially paralyzed person would still have sensation despite having lost control in the paralyzed area.
According to the website of Schuler, Halvorson, Weisser, Zoeller & Overbeck, P.A., total paralysis, called Quadriplegia, means total loss of functions and control of body parts that are affected. Total paralysis starts from the injured area of the spinal cord down to the rest of the body; this means that the higher the injury, the greater the extent of paralysis.
Negligence is, most often, a factor in accidents resulting to spinal cord injuries. While the person at-fault in an accident may never have intended causing any injury, the fact that he/she was negligent and has actually injured someone are enough reasons to make him/her answer before the law and be made to compensate whoever he/she has harmed. A highly-competent personal injury lawyer may be able to assist a victim either in the legal pursuit or in an out-of-court settlement which will enable (the victim) to seek and claim the just amount of compensation that he/she is legally entitled to receive.
In most instances, driving under the influence (DUI) is considered a misdemeanor charge. However, there are certain cases when DUI can become a felony charge. When the charge is raised, it usually carries stiffer penalties and sanctions. According to the website of Cazayoux Ewing Law Firm, car accidents can have serious and long lasting consequences. Such is the case of DUI when it becomes a felony.
In order for DUI to become a felony, there are certain factors that should be met. It is worth noting that the rules for what does and what does not constitute felony varies from one state to another. Thus, you should be aware of the laws and procedures for more information. Here now are some of the instances when DUI becomes a felony.
Elevated Blood Alcohol Concentration
The current BAC limit for every state is 0.08 percent so if you exceed that limit, you will be charged with DUI for violation of the law. If your blood alcohol content exceeds the elevated level set by law which is usually .16 percent, then your DUI becomes a felony.
In some states, DUI becomes felony if the driver causes bodily harm to another person. In other states, the prosecutors can decide whether DUI that causes bodily harm can be charged as a misdemeanor or felony. Still, there are other states where the plaintiff must prove that the defendant caused the injury. If another driver runs into the defendant while at a stop sign and gets injured, the intoxicated driver did not cause the bodily harm so DUI remains a misdemeanor.
If the defendant has been convicted several times for DUI within a certain period of time, then he will be charged with felony DUI. The number of previous offenses and the time period will vary from one state to another.
Children in the Vehicle
In some states, there is a law that elevates DUI to felony when there are children on the vehicle. The law was enacted after 11-year old Leandra died when her friend’s mother crashed her car while driving under the influence. Known as Leandra Law, the rule applies when a child less than 15 years old is involved in the accident.
Driving with a Restricted, Suspended, or Revoked License
In some states, DUI is elevated into felony if the offense is committed while the defendant has a restricted, suspended, or revoked license.
Although it may seem like the heart of home and health, it is still an accident-prone area. There are many things the kitchen that can lead to serious injuries or every death, so it is necessary to understand and know the ways that you can secure your safety when in and out of the kitchen. For some who wants to ensure the security of their kitchen, here are some dangers that are often overlooked even by safety-vigilant people.
Fire extinguishers – many people often take fire extinguishers lightly until there is actually a fire in your house. Although kitchen alternatives such as baking soda can put out grease fire, those that are quick to get of out control need immediate and more effective way to be extinguished. A small or portable fire extinguisher can go a long way in protecting your kitchen, and you house in general, from fires. Also, make sure that the fire extinguishers are passed inspection and that you know how to use them.
Extension and appliance cords – because the kitchen has a great number of appliances, they are often cramped in a small space and cause clutter. Although using an electric cord can make the use of appliances easier, it can lead to electric shocks or electrocution, especially when they get wet. They are also tripping hazards and a potential cause of fire. Make sure to unplug and stow away the appliance after you use them.
Water – not many people may know it, but water in the kitchen can also be dangerous. Aside from water causing electric shocks, wet hands can make it difficult to grasp glassware which can lead to cuts. On the other hand not washing your hands when cooking can lead to the spread of bacteria, causing sickness.
Older adults are more at risk of accidents in kitchen. This is among the reasons listed on SeniorAdvice.com as to why many older adult consider assisted living or living in health care facilities. These options not only present them with assistance in their daily activities, they also ensure that the elders are kept healthy and safe from any danger. Because of health complication and declines due to getting older, certain restrictions can cause elders to put themselves in danger of accidents or health complications, so having someone help them through everyday activities without restricting their independence is a great way to for them to live out their lives to the fullest.
Under common definition, hit-and-run, or hit and skip, refers to a person’s act of leaving or fleeing from the scene of an accident in order to escape responsibility for injury. On a wider context though, hit-and-run can also be referred to the act of speeding away from a situation that damages properties, whether personal or public, or collides with an animal, injuring or killing it as a result (some states include this within the scope of hit-and-run accidents).
Based on the two definitions above, a hit-and-run accident, therefore, can involve not just a pedestrian or another vehicle (wherein its driver, usually the one who may be identified as the victim, is injured and rendered unconscious), but fixed objects and animals as well. While all state laws require that it occurs on public roads and highways, some states include collisions occurring in parking lots as well.
It is the legal obligation of drivers who are involved in accidents to stop, provide whatever kind of assistance may be needed by anyone who gets injured or loses consciousness, contact traffic enforcers and wait for them to arrive at the scene – this is regardless of who was at fault in the accident. Even if nothing more than damage to property is the issue, both drivers are still legally required to exchange information regarding their identification, insurance provider and contact details. In parking lots where the owner of a vehicle that is damaged is nowhere in sight, then the driver who is at fault should leave a written notice with his/her identification and contact details.
State laws differ when leaving the scene of an accident is the issue. While some states would charge the driver (who is guilty of hit-and-run) a misdemeanor offense, others consider the act a felony, a much more serious offense. Whatever the charge is, though, the following are certain: time behind bars; punitive and compensatory damages; cancellation of insurance policy (upon identification of the hit-and-run driver); and, revocation or suspension of driver’s license (some states are authorized to permanently cancel the offender’s driver’s license).
To mention specific charges and punishment imposed by some states:
- In Texas, after September 1, 2013, the charge was raised from a third degree felony to a second degree felony. This means up to 20 years in prison, instead of just up to 10
- In Florida, seriously injuring someone will mean a seven-year sentence, and 10 years if there are fatalities
- In Arizona, once a hit-and-run driver is identified, he/she will have his/her license suspended for five years (if the case involves serious injuries); fatal accidents will mean 10 years automatic suspension of license. These do not include time in jail yet
- In Colorado, a law was passed in 2012, which made hit-and-run accidents (with serious bodily injury) a Class 4 felony.
A study conducted by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety shows that majority of hit-and-run victims are pedestrians and, with regard to the cause of the accidents, the major factor is alcohol impairment.
In another study, it is said that drivers tend to run due to varying reasons, including: driving without a license; high blood-alcohol content; or, they’re very young to be charged with a major offense. As the number of drivers fleeing from the scene of an accident continuous to rise, so too does the difficulty of catching them since many have resorted to means that will help them avoid identification, like having their vehicle immediately repainted or have the part damaged by the impact quickly repaired.
Often, victims of hit-and-run have nowhere to turn to, especially for financial support. They will have to understand that they have the law as their ally and a personal injury lawyer, in whatever state they live, as their defender; a Tennessee personal injury lawyer is one example.
Lawyers can never guarantee that a personal injury case, or any case for that matter, will be decided in favor of the plaintiff or complainant; however, filing a civil lawsuit and arguing with the defendant in court without being represented by a truly skilled personal injury lawyer would be similar to getting severely injured the second time, only this time, he/she is face-to-face with the driver at fault.
There are also times, though, when a case is filed against an insurance provider that keeps denying a claim filed by a hit-and-run victim or which employs tactics that will allow it to pay a claimant lesser amount of benefit or make delayed payments.
Assault and battery charges can cover a wide range of acts. Some of these acts can be considered relatively minor and result in a misdemeanor. There are also acts that are found to be extremely severe, meriting harsher penalties and a felony charge. For example, incidents that involve minor physical altercation that arise from an argument are typically considered a misdemeanor. On the other hand, the act of making threats with a handgun is commonly understood as something more serious and could constitute to a felony charge.
Under California law, assault is defined as an intentional attempt to physically injure another individual. Threats that make a person feel like they are in danger fall within this definition. On the other hand, battery is seen as the intentional and unlawful use of violence against another person. This includes the use of any type of force that involves physical contact. The law also delineates different ways to classify assault and battery crimes. According to the website of the San Jose criminal defense lawyers with the Law Office of Daniel Jensen, P.C., there are 5 different assault and battery charges in California: domestic violence, sexual assault or battery, aggravated assault or battery, simple assault or battery, and motor vehicle assault.
As implied in the earlier examples, particular details will determine whether a given crime will be charged as a misdemeanor or felony. There are also cases when a crime will be considered a “wobbler.” A crime charged as a wobbler leaves room for the prosecutor to use his or her discretion when pursuing the case. A person convicted with simple assault could face up to six months in jail, additional six months of probation, and a $1000 fine. Meanwhile, a simple battery conviction could lead to about six months in county jail, up to six months of probation, and as $2000 fine. Penalties for more serious crimes like sexual assault or battery are much steeper, especially if the crime led to serious bodily harm. In such cases, a convicted individual could face up to 4 years in state prison, as well as formal probation.
As the website of Crowe & Mulvey, LLP eloquently puts it, there are very few things in life as tragic and devastating as dealing with the unexpected loss of a loved one. There’s no way around the emotional turmoil that such an experience is sure to bring. What’s worse is when this grief becomes compounded due to the knowledge that death could have been avoided if not for the negligent behavior of another party. This leaves the surviving family to deal with consequences that will only increase the burden they are already carrying and make it hard to find the closure they need.
Fortunately, the law provides avenues of relief and comfort for grieving families in these situations. According to the website of Williams Kherkher, individuals seeking out answers can find closure through pursuing a wrongful death claim against the party or individual responsible for their loss. Wrongful death claims encompass all manner of accidents and scenarios that have been made possible due to negligent action committed by another person or entity. This includes fatalities caused by vehicular accidents, workplace explosions, and medical malpractice. A successful claim entitles the family to compensation covering financial expenses caused by the incident like medical expenses and income loss, as well as additional damages for the bereavement and suffering they have had to endure.
A wrongful death claim may be pursued by those that the law recognizes as the “real parties in interest”. While the definition varies from state to state, this usually includes the victim’s immediate family members, spouses and life partners, as well as financial dependents and other persons who stand to suffer financially due to the accident that occurred. These individuals will be allowed to pursue their claim within a specific period of time called the statute of limitations. Again, this differs depending on state laws. Usually, the statute of limitations for wrongful death claims is at 2 years. If you are looking to pursue a claim in the wake of an unexpected loss, it would be best to consult a legal professional as soon as possible.
Plenty of action happens behind the scenes when a case goes to trial. While popular culture suggests that the lawyers are the only ones who put in hard work to craft a formidable argument, there are actually a lot of other players that contribute in building a strong case. For one, there are evidence to be gathered and witnesses to be interviewed so lawyers can point to concrete details to add weight to their points. Tasks like these fall under what’s called litigation support.
As pointed out by the Defender Services Office, the main objective of individuals working in litigation support is to organize, analyze, and present materials that will contribute to the improvement of a given case. Ultimately, the people in litigation support aims to assist lawyers by providing services through records retrieval and court reporting.
While all tasks that fall under litigation support are crucial to the success of a case, court reporting is particularly vital because it involves the documentation of depositions. According to Stratos Legal, a deposition is a sworn statement given by a witness, typically used to pinpoint any issues or contradictions in the testimony delivered during the actual trial. It can also be integrated into the hearing should the witness be unable to make it to court on a specific day.
Traditionally, court reporting is accomplished simply through transcribing the statement made by a witness. Court reporters made use of a special machine called a stenotype in order to be able to type depositions using the shorthand system. However, with the technology available today, court reporters have been able to create more accurate documentations through the use of digital videography and recording.
A Brazilian Blowout is one of the most sought after hair treatments available today. Women who seek out this treatment leave with voluminous, frizz-free, and manageable hair. The whole process involves the use of amino acids to smoothen and seal the hair cuticle, ensuring that these results last for up to three months.
The Brazilian Blowout treatment is the perfect alternative for relaxers and other methods of straighteners that don’t typically last as long. However, most experts agree that Brazilian Blowouts become even more effective when performed on top of these treatments. The amino acids used to the procedure helps target the roots of the hair and fortify the effects left by other chemical treatments.
The men behind Therapy Hair Studio, a Houston hair studio, say the best candidates for a Brazilian Blowout are women with frizzy or damaged hair. It works perfectly regardless of hair type. It doesn’t matter if you have fine, course, or curly hair. If you’re looking for a way to enhance the look of your crowning glory without risking further damage, a Brazilian Blowout is the best option. This is because the treatment is all about working with the natural texture of the hair and improving it for better effect. After the treatment, wavy hair looks naturally straight and bouncy. It will also minimize the look of frizziness for curly and course hair. Meanwhile, women with straight hair will leave with something that looks a lot smoother and shinier following the blowout.
It’s important to note that getting a Brazilian Blowout involves the use of chemicals. While there have been plenty of debates around the harmfulness of these ingredients, these safety concerns won’t be an issue if the treatment is administered by a qualified professional. If you are considering a Brazilian Blowout, you will need to do your research and find the best stylist for the job.
There’s no way to predict when an accident will happen, nor is there a way to know the exact consequences that such an incident could lead to. The only way people can mitigate the risks they face is by being well-prepared for the possibility of accidents and natural disasters. It’s extremely important to set up safety nets so that damages and injuries can be properly covered and addressed. One such safety net is setting up an insurance policy, which allows an individual the means to prepare for financial losses caused by any catastrophic event.
Unfortunately, having an insurance policy doesn’t always guarantee financial security. Even with individuals that opt to pay more to receive higher benefits, there are some insurance providers that fail to hold up on their end of the agreement. In an act of bad faith, certain insurance providers grant payments that are much smaller than the policy that has been purchased. There have also been instances when insurance providers flat out refuse to act on legitimate claims, by denying the petition or even impeding its processing through malicious and questionable practices.
According to the lawyers at Smith Kendall, PLLC, insurance bad faith is both a violation of legal statutes and the implicit trust that policyholders place on their providers. It happens because these questionable insurance providers are mostly concerned about avoiding liability, and are much more willing to protect their own interests than that of their clients. Such thinking is incredibly alarming, considering that these companies are in the business of ensuring that individuals won’t have to suffer more that they should. Common types of bad faith practices include false advertising, exaggerating or misrepresenting the coverage of a given insurance policy, and committing insurance code violations like delaying investigations of claims made.